Objectives: To review the cases of atypical squamous cells (ASC), cannot exclude squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) diagnosed at a single institution and to discuss the interpretation challenges and clinical management of these cases. Study Design: The ASC-H cases diagnosed at our institution from 2006 to 2015 were studied retrospectively; of 159,000 Pap smears, there were 959 cases of ASC of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and 148 cases of ASC-H. We have reviewed the clinical records of the ASC-H cases, and data have been analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Results: Median age was 43.1 years; 49.6% of the patients had previous cervical cytologies, and 55.9% of them were negative. Following ASC-H diagnosis, another smear was obtained in 97.1% of the cases and in 67.6% a biopsy was performed. Biopsy revealed low-grade dysplasia in 18.8% of the cases, high-grade dysplasia in 27.8%, and infiltrating carcinoma in 2.3%. Patients with significant lesions in histology were younger than patients with negative results (p = 0.08). A diagnosis of ASC-H/squamous intraepithelial lesion in the repeated cytology had a sensitivity of 74.2%, specificity of 39.6%, positive predictive value of 44.8%, and negative predictive value of 70% for the diagnosis of dysplasia. Conclusions: ASC-H diagnosis is associated with a high incidence of histological high-grade lesions. A repeat cytology can aid in the selection of high-risk patients, but there may be false-negative results.

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