Objective: Cell block (CB) preparations from residual liquid-based Pap samples have been shown to be of diagnostic value. In this study we evaluated human papillomavirus (HPV) in situ hybridization (ISH) and p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) on CB preparations and compared the results with the primary diagnosis and standard HPV tests. Design: In total, 197 HE-stained CB slides prepared from CBs from residual Pap samples (152 ASCUS, 2 ASC-H, 32 LGSIL, 4 HGSIL, 1 AGUS and 6 normal) were analyzed. Hybrid Capture-2 (HC-2)/Cervista testing and HPV ISH and p16 IHC were performed on the CB samples. The test performance characteristics were compared with HPV and p16 assay performances. Results: The cellular architecture was well maintained in CBs with excellent consistency. HPV ISH testing had an excellent concordance with the HC-2/Cervista methods (85%) with high sensitivity (82.6%; 95% CI 75.9, 89.4) and specificity (89.3%). Of all the p16 tests, 38% were positive (60 out of 159 samples). The overall concordance between p16 and HC-2/Cervista (64%), or between p16 and ISH (68%), was lower than the concordance between ISH and HC-2/Cervista (85%). Conclusions: HPV ISH and p16 IHC testing is feasible, cost effective and practical. A combination of the two tests would ultimately improve diagnostic accuracy, leading to better therapeutic decisions.

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