Objective: The production of cytokines by various cervical cells can be triggered by antigenic stimuli, including human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in cytokine levels between various intraepithelial cervical lesions. Study Design: A total of 97 women participated in this descriptive study. Within our study population, 27 subjects presented with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), 48 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and 22 with a normal smear. Colposcopy and directed biopsy were performed as needed. To confirm the presence of HPV, an HPV-DNA test was performed using polymerase chain reaction. Using flow cytometry to ThinPrep cervical samples, we assessed the family of interleukins (ILs), including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and TNF-β and transforming growth factor-β1. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS for Windows; version 20.0). Results: Significantly lower levels of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4 and TNF-α were detected in cervical samples obtained from the LSIL group when compared to samples obtained from the HSIL group. Conclusion: Significant differences in tissue cytokine levels exist between intraepithelial cervical lesions obtained from patients presenting with HSIL versus LSIL.

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