Objective: The differential diagnosis between retinal detachment and melanoma metastatic to the vitreous can be challenging, both clinically and cytologically. We demonstrate the diagnostic features and pitfalls of the cytological assessment. Study Design: A case of a metastatic melanoma to the vitreous is compared to a case of retinal detachment initially suspected as melanoma metastasis. Case 1 was a 54-year-old patient with a vague history of pigmented lesions 20 years previously and a current presentation of a visual defect. Case 2 was a 68-year-old patient with a history of melanoma and a presentation of floaters and flashing lights. Results: The vitreous fluid of case 1 contained atypical, pigment-laden cells positive for HMB-45 and assessed as melanoma. On enucleation, a melanoma metastatic to the vitreous was diagnosed. The vitreous fluid of case 2 revealed atypical cells containing pigment granules. The cells were negative for melanocytic markers, while the granules stained positive for melanin. Macrophage marker CD163 was positive in all cells. The interpretation was one of macrophages reactive to the retinal detachment. Conclusion: Melanin-laden macrophages can mimic melanoma cells. This needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Additional stains can help the distinction.

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.