Objectives: We evaluated SOX10 (SRY-related HMG-box 10) in differentiating acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) from other salivary gland neoplasms with oncocytic features on fine-needle aspiration cell blocks (FNA CB) and compared its performance to DOG1 (discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumor 1). Material and Methods: 35 FNA CB of oncocytic salivary gland neoplasms, i.e. 13 cases of AciCC, 16 of Warthin tumor (WT), 3 of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and 3 of oncocytoma (ONC), and 75 salivary gland resections, i.e. 26 AciCC, 7 WT, 36 MEC, 3 ONC, 2 mammary analog secretory carcinomas (MASC) and 1 papillary cystadenoma were stained for SOX10 and DOG1. Results: None of the benign oncocytic neoplasms were immunoreactive for SOX10 on CB or resection, similar to DOG1. On CB, 61.5 and 77% of AciCC were positive for SOX10 and DOG1, respectively. All surgically resected AciCC cases were positive for SOX10 and DOG1; other malignant oncocytic lesions such as MEC and MASC demonstrated variable SOX10 and DOG1 staining. Conclusion: The use of SOX10 may increase the diagnostic accuracy of oncocytic lesions on FNA. In this context, SOX10 is equivalent to DOG1 in ruling out benign lesions such as WT and ONC; however, negative results for SOX10 as well as DOG1 do not favor a benign diagnosis since MEC is often negative for both markers.

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