Objective: The presence of degenerative endometrial debris and abnormal endometrial cells is considered to be the hint for endometrial pathology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears in detecting endometrial cancers. Study Design: There were 146 cases of endometrial cancer diagnosed at our institute in 2000-2002 and 271 in 2010-2012. Among them, 57 and 95 relevant reports of Pap smears 6 months prior to the histology diagnosis were retrieved for this study, respectively. In the first time period, new criteria for detecting endometrial lesions had not yet been incorporated into routine screening. Results: Twenty cases (21%) of adenocarcinoma, 12 (13%) of atypical glandular cells, 4 (4%) of endometrial debris and 59 (62%) negative reports were found among the more recent 95 relevant Pap smears. The overall efficacy of the Pap smear for detecting endometrial malignancy was 38%, higher than 10 years previously (30%). Conclusion: Although the Pap smear was originally designed to screen cervical lesions, more effective detection of endometrial lesions could be achieved by adding new criteria to the routine screening.

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