Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the cytomorphometric and morphological effects of Trichomonas vaginalis in exfoliated epithelial cells. Study Design: Ninety-six Pap-stained cervical smears were divided into a study group and two control groups as follows: T. vaginalis cases, a first control group with inflammation, and a second control group without inflammation. Micronucleated, binucleated, karyorrhectic, karyolytic, and karyopyknotic cells and cells with perinuclear halos per 1,000 epithelial cells were counted. Nuclear and cellular areas were evaluated in 70 clearly defined cells in each smear using image analysis. Results: The frequencies of morphological parameters in the T. vaginalis cases were higher than the values of the two control groups, and the difference among groups was found to be significant (p < 0.05). The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of epithelial cells were diminished in patients with trichomoniasis. The mean nucleus/cytoplasm ratio in T. vaginalis patients was higher than the value in the control groups, and the difference between the study group and control group 1 was significant. However, there was no statistically significant increase between the study group and control group 2. Conclusions:T. vaginalis exhibited significant changes in the cellular size and nuclear structure of the cells. The rising frequency of micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities, and changing nucleus/cytoplasm ratio may reflect genotoxic damage in trichomoniasis.

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