Background: Preoperative cytodiagnosis of ovarian masses is a difficult process, and sampling of pelvic masses is quite easier after the improvement of imaging techniques. Though histopathology is the gold standard, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) under ultrasound (US) guidance can be a valuable tool for pre-operative diagnosis of ovarian lesions, especially in the hands of an experienced pathologist. Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the role of US-guided FNAC in pre-operative cytological diagnosis of ovarian masses in comparison with histopathology, and to assess the pitfalls and limitations of cytological interpretation. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted over a 2-year period on 70 cases of ovarian masses, which were evaluated by US-guided FNAC. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy were calculated using histopathology as gold standard. Results: On cytological evaluation, non-neoplastic cysts, and benign and malignant ovarian tumours were diagnosed in 8, 18 and 40 cases, respectively. On histopathology, 62 cases were concordant with cytology. Sensitivity and specificity were 95.23 and 95.83%, respectively, in the present study. Diagnostic accuracy was 93.94% in respect to the correct diagnosis. Cytohistological discrepancies and limitations of the study are discussed. Conclusion: US-guided FNAC has proved as a quick, economic and safe procedure in diagnosing ovarian masses with brilliant accuracy.

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