Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. DOG1 is a sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for the diagnosis of GIST. To date, no study has reported the utility of DOG1 immunocytochemistry on aspirate smears. Methods: Aspirates with a cytological diagnosis of GIST were retrieved. DOG1 immunocytochemistry was performed on aspirates with adequate material. Results: 23 cases were included (11 primary, 2 recurrent, 10 metastatic). Primary tumors were most frequently located in the stomach; most metastatic tumors were in the liver. Tumor cells were arranged in cohesive clusters with high cellularity. Cells were spindled, had a low N:C ratio, and a moderate amount of cytoplasm, which was elongated and tapering. Characteristic nuclear features included elongated nuclei with blunt or tapering ends, fine chromatin, mild anisonucleosis, and longitudinal grooves. The mitotic count was low, including in metastatic tumors. DOG1 immunopositivity was noted in 57% of the cases examined. Histopathology was available in 5 cases, all diagnosed as GIST. Conclusion: Cytology is a sensitive investigative modality for the preoperative diagnosis and confirmation of metastasis of GISTs. In ambiguous cases, DOG1 immunocytochemistry can serve as a valuable adjunct. Cytologic assessment, however, cannot predict malignant potential of GISTs as even metastatic tumors display bland nuclear features.

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