Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the immunocytochemical expression of cell proliferation markers, such as minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM 7), geminin, topoisomerase II alpha (topo IIα) and Ki-67, which are different types of cell proliferation markers, could be useful for their differential diagnosis in reactive mesothelial cells and malignant mesothelioma cells obtained from body cavity fluids. Study Design: Samples diagnosed and later histologically confirmed as reactive mesothelial cells (39 cases) or malignant mesothelioma (32 cases) in body cavity fluids were examined. Immunocytochemical staining of MCM 7, geminin, topo IIα and Ki-67 was performed with the immunoperoxidase polymer method. Results: Labeling indices (LIs) of MCM 7 (cutoff value 20.0%; sensitivity 100%; specificity 100%), geminin (cutoff value 4.5%; sensitivity 88.0%; specificity 70.0%), topo IIα (cutoff value 11.0%; sensitivity 88.0%; specificity 92.0%) and Ki-67 (cutoff value 15.3%; sensitivity 78.0%; specificity 79.0%) of malignant mesothelioma cells were significantly higher than those of reactive mesothelial cells. Conclusion: LIs of MCM 7, geminin and topo IIα can be reliable tools for the differential diagnosis of reactive mesothelial cells and malignant mesothelioma cells.