Objective: Samples from breast nipples collected with the automated HALO™ Mamo Cito Test were studied in order to evaluate the cellularity for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Study Design: One hundred and fifty-nine asymptomatic women were prospectively examined. Women younger than 18 years, pregnant or lactating women, and women with a history of breast cancer, with previous radio- or chemotherapy and with nipple piercing were excluded from the study. Nipple samples from both breasts were collected. Results: In 107 (34.96%) of the 306 samples of nipple discharge analyzed by optical microscopy, adequate cellularity was observed after the HALO procedure. Cytological findings, previously categorized according to the National Health Service Breast Screening Program (NHSBSP), were grouped as unsatisfactory, benign, suspected for malignancy, and malignant. Of the cellular breast samples, 97.19% (104/107) were classified as benign, and 2.81% (3/107) were classified as suspicious for malignancy. In 199 cases there were samples without cells (65.03%). Most of the cells observed were easily recognized as well-preserved and adequately stained macrophages. None of the women reported discomfort with the nipple aspiration procedure. Conclusions: The results discussed here encouraged us to use samples collected automatically in routine procedures.

Martins E, Freitas-Junior R, Curado MP, Freitas NM, De Oliveira JC, Silva CM: Temporal evolution of breast cancer stages in a population-based cancer registry in the Brazilian central region. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2009;31:219-223.
Mauad EC, Nicolau SM, Moreira LF, Haikel RL Jr, Longatto-Filho A, Baracat EC: Adherence to cervical and breast cancer programs is crucial to improving screening performance. Rural Remote Health 2009;9:1241.
Caleffi M, Ribeiro RA, Duarte Filho DL, Ashton-Prolla P, Bedin AJ Jr, Skonieski GP, Zignani JM, Giacomazzi J, Franco LR, Graudenz M, Pohlmann P, Fernandes JG, Kivitz P, Weber B: A model to optimize public health care and downstage breast cancer in limited-resource populations in southern Brazil (Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort). BMC Public Health 2009;9:83.
Rodríguez-Cuevas S, Guisa-Hohenstein F, Labastida-Almendaro S: First breast cancer mammography screening program in Mexico: initial results 2005-2006. Breast J 2009;15:623-631.
Warner E, Messersmith H, Causer P, Eisen A, Shumak R, Plewes D: Systematic review: using magnetic resonance imaging to screen women at high risk for breast cancer. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:671-679.
Weigelt B, Reis-Filho JS: Histological and molecular types of breast cancer: is there a unifying taxonomy? Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2009;6:718-730.
Abdel-Fatah TM, Powe DG, Hodi Z, Reis-Filho JS, Lee AH, Ellis IO: Morphologic and molecular evolutionary pathways of low nuclear grade invasive breast cancers and their putative precursor lesions: further evidence to support the concept of low nuclear grade breast neoplasia family. Am J Surg Pathol 2008;32:513-523.
Vaughan A, Crowe JP, Brainard J, Dawson A, Kim J, Dietz JR: Mammary ductoscopy and ductal washings for the evaluation of patients with pathologic nipple discharge. Breast J 2009;15:254-260.
Masood S, Khalbuss WE: Nipple fluid cytology. Clin Lab Med 2005;25:787-794.
Beechey-Newman N, Kulkarni D, Kothari A, D'Arrlgo C, Culora G, Hamed H, Fentiman I: Breast duct microendoscopy in nipple discharge: microbrush improves cytology. Surg Endosc 2005;19:1648-1651.
Loud JT, Beckjord EB, Nichols K, Peters J, Giusti R, Greene MH: Tolerability of breast ductal lavage in women from families at high genetic risk of breast cancer. BMC Womens Health 2009;9:20.
Tondre J, Nejad M, Casano A, Mills D, Love S: Technical enhancements to breast ductal lavage. Ann Surg Oncol 2008;15:2734-2738.
Proctor KA, Rowe LR, Bentz JS: Cytologic features of nipple aspirate fluid using an automated non-invasive collection device: a prospective observational study. BMC Womens Health 2005;5:10.
King EB, Chew KL, Petrakis NL, Ernster VL: Nipple aspirate cytology for the study of breast cancer precursors. J Natl Cancer Inst 1983;71:1115-1121.
Elsheikh TM: Does the new automated ‘HALO' nipple aspiration fluid system really deliver as promised? The answer is ‘No, but...': a literature review of the role of breast fluid cytology in cancer risk assessment. Diagn Cytopathol 2009;37:699-704.
Wrensch MR, Petrakis NL, King EB, et al: Breast cancer incidence in women with abnormal cytology in nipple aspirates of breast fluid. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:130-141.
Sauter ER: Analysis of nipple aspirate fluid for diagnosis of breast cancer: an alternative to invasive biopsy. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2005;5:873-881.
Schmitt FC, Longatto-Filho A, Valent A, Vielh P: Molecular techniques in cytopathology practice. J Clin Pathol 2008;61:258-267.
Filassi JR, Ricci MD, Trinconi AF, Calvano DC, Pompei Lde M, Longatto Filho A, Baracat EC: Assessment of pain sensitivity and factors involved in the quality of the sample fluid cytologic papillary: preliminary results from the use of automated collection (in Portuguese). Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2010;32:491-496.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.