Objective: It was the aim of this study to compare diagnostic performances of the BD SurePath™ liquid-based Papanicolaou test (LBC) and the conventional Papanicolaou test (CPT) in cervical samples of women from remote rural areas of Brazil. Study Design: Specimens were collected by mobile units provided by Barretos Cancer Hospital. This report evaluates the manual screening arm of the RODEO study. Of 12,048 women seen between May and December 2010, 6,001 were examined using LBC and 6,047 using CPT. Results: Comparative (LBC vs. CPT) outcomes were: all abnormal tests, 2.1 versus 1.0%; ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of unknown significance), 0.7 versus 0.1%; ASC-H (atypical squamous cells with possible high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) and AGC (atypical glandular cells), 0.4 versus 0.3%; LSIL (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions), 0.7 versus 0.3%; HSIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions), 0.4 versus 0.2%, and unsatisfactory, 0.03 versus 0.08%. The LBC arm detected significantly more lesions (ASC-US+) than CPT (p < 0.001); however, when we divided the diagnoses into two groups, ASC-H– (negative/ASC-US/LSIL) and ASC-H+ (ASC-H/AGC/HSIL), the difference was not statistically important (p = 0.213). Conclusions: With inherent difficulties in patient recruitment and patient compliance with cancer screening, best test performance including human papillomavirus test capability are vitally necessary in Brazil’s struggle to reduce cervical cancer.