The discovery of targetable driver mutations in pulmonary adenocarcinoma has revolutionized the field of thoracic oncology by the introduction of oral small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors that target specific EGFR mutations and EML-4/ALK rearrangement. Therefore, testing for EGFR gene mutations and ALK rearrangements has become part of everyday clinical practice. The majority of lung cancer patients present at an advanced stage, where small biopsy and cytology specimens are often the only available material for diagnostic workup and molecular characterization. Mutation testing has become the standard of care. Nonetheless, the technical complexity and relative high cost of the test have challenged the widespread use of molecular techniques in everyday clinical settings. Recently, antibodies to specific molecular alterations have become available and have the potential to become instruments for the molecular characterization of tumors. In this review article we will discuss practical issues in molecular characterization of lung adenocarcinoma on cytology material and the use of immunocytochemical stains for the detection of mutant protein as an alternative or adjunct to molecular techniques.

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.