Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical utility of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay as a non-invasive molecular test to distinguish urothelial carcinoma (UC) in the upper urinary tract (UUT) from benign lesions presenting with hematuria. Study Design: The chromosomal abnormalities of chromosomes 3, 7, 17 and 9 (p16) in hematuria specimens from 34 patients with UUT-UC and 33 patients with benign disorders were detected using a set of fluorescently labeled DNA probes. The abnormalities of the chromosomes were determined and analyzed between UUT-UC and benign disorders. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 25 of 34 (73.5%) patients with UUT-UC and in 2 of 33 (6.1%) patients with benign disorders (p < 0.001). Conclusions: FISH of chromosomes 3, 7, 9 and 17 performed on exfoliated cells from voided urine specimens may serve as a non-invasive tool to distinguish UUT-UC from benign disorders presenting with hematuria.

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