Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of a new liquid-based cytological procedure in a population screening program for cervix cancer. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were 1,000 women who underwent primary screening at the Kanagawa Health Service Association. The cytological specimens obtained by either cotton stick and Cytobrush® or Cervex-Brush® were processed using the Thinlayer Advanced Cytology Assay System (TACAS™), following the manufacturer’s instructions. Results: (1) Cells were evenly distributed on specimens and stained evenly; (2) shrinkage of cells was 5% based on measurement of the nuclear diameters of granulocytes in comparison with those of the conventional procedure; (3) incidences of cells that occupied the whole area, 1/20≤, 1/4≤, 1/4> of the observation fields were 58.8, 26.2, 12.0 and 3.0%, respectively; (4) number of the squamous cells in cases with 1/4> was <5,000, in which specimen cells were correctly obtained from the squamocolumnar junction except in 3 cases (0.3%); (5) bleeding at cellular sampling was 5%, but did not disturb cell analysis; (6) inflammation caused by organisms was easily diagnosed; (7) detection rate of abnormal cytology was 4.3%, including ASC-US in 2.8% and ASC-H in 0.1%. Conclusion: TACAS is a feasible and useful cytological procedure.

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