Background/Objective: The Bethesda 2007 Thyroid Cytology Classification defines atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) as a heterogeneous category of cases that are neither convincingly benign nor sufficiently atypical for a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm or suspicious for malignancy. At our institution, we refer to these cases as ‘indeterminate’ and they are further subclassified into two categories. BRAF mutation occurs in 40–60% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In this study, we examined cases in the AUS/FLUS category in correlation with BRAF mutation analysis and surgical pathology outcome. Study Design: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens interpreted as ‘indeterminate’ were selected from our files, and available remnants of thin-layer processed specimens were used for BRAF mutation analysis. Surgical pathology reports were reviewed for the final outcomes in these patients. Results: Of the 84 indeterminate cases with BRAF mutation analysis, only 49 had follow-up with surgical intervention. Sixteen cases had BRAF mutation. All of the BRAF-positive cases had a final diagnosis of PTC. Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of BRAF mutation in detecting PTC in FNA specimens with indeterminate diagnosis was 59.3 and 100%, respectively, while the positive and negative predictive values were 100 and 65.6%, respectively. The limited data supports the use of BRAF mutation analysis to predict the risk of malignancy in patients with indeterminate thyroid FNAs.

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