Objective: To evaluate the relationship of the cytomorphology of medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) between family members with the same RET proto-oncogene mutation. Study Design: Review of the fine-needle aspiration slides of 13 cases with MTC proven by surgery and pathology from 5 unrelated families with either multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A or familial MTC (FMTC). Results: Small, round, and abundant large oval-to-polygonal cells were major cytomorphologic findings in 66.7% of family members with exon 11, codon 634 TGC → CGC germline mutation. Small, round cells and only a few or no polygonal cells were found in 66.7% of family members with exon 11, codon 634 TGC → TTC germline mutation and in 100% of family members with codon 634 TGC → TGG germline mutations, as well as in 100% of family members with exon 10, codon 620 TGC → GGC germline mutation. Conclusions: The high rate of similarity of cytomorphology (66.7–100%) in the family members with MEN type 2A or FMTC might be related to the same etiology in the production of MTC in the same family. The relationship of the respective cytomorphology with the long-term prognosis is worth elucidating further.

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