Objective: Of the 6 categories in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC), the atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) category has received the most attention. The objectives of this study were to review the use of the AUS/FLUS category in recent studies, to search for likely sources of the variability in its use, and to address possible methods for improvement. Study Design: A PubMed search was performed to retrieve peer-reviewed articles that have comprehensively detailed the incidence and outcome of AUS/FLUS and other BSRTC categories. Related thyroid cytology articles on the BSRTC were also included. Results: Recent series that reported experiences with the BSRTC categories showed that the AUS/FLUS category exhibited a marked variability in incidence (0.7–18%) and malignant outcome (6–48%) in resection specimens. Review of the literature revealed institutional differences in technical aspects, interpretation and application of criteria, analysis of outcome data, and clinicopathologic interactions. Conclusions: A heightened awareness of technical issues, diagnostic borders of AUS/FLUS, and clinical management may aid in diagnostic refinement and help avoid overuse of this category.

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