Objective: Patients using a removable prosthesis are susceptible to a variety of oral lesions that may progress to cancer. Toluidine blue (TB) staining is used to identify premalignant lesions, but the results are still controversial. Since micronuclei (MN) are a biomarker of genetic instability, the objective of this study was to determine the frequency of MN in white lesions of the oral mucosa and to compare the results with those of the TB test. Study Design: The study included 20 removable prosthesis users with white lesions that were previously classified as toluidine positive or negative. The frequency of MN was evaluated in exfoliated cells from lesions and normal mucosa. Nuclear anomalies were also registered. Results: A significant increase (p < 0.05) in the frequency of MN was observed in exfoliated cells from lesions compared to normal mucosal cells, and no relationship was seen with TB staining. Lifestyle factors or gender did not influence the results. Conclusions: The frequency of MN is a sensitive biomarker and can be used to predict genomic instability in white oral lesions. The MN assay may serve as a good parameter in the battery of tests used to identify high-risk individuals, contributing to the identification of the biological conditions of oral lesions.