The interaction of cytotrophoblast with maternal endometrium, especially endometrial blood vessels, was examined in macaque gestational stages between 2 and 8 days after the onset of implantation. Serial sectioning of these early implantation sites allowed immunostaining of consecutive sections with a number of different antibodies, facilitating cell identification. In the earliest implantation site, immunostaining showed that antibody to cytokeratin stained cytotrophoblast, syncytial trophoblast, epithelial plaque and endometrial gland cells. However, only those cytotrophoblast cells near the maternal-fetal border and within vessels showed surface staining for neural cell adhesion molecules and only syncytial trophoblast showed SP1 reactivity. Even at this early stage cytotrophoblast filled the lumen of superficial arterioles, whereas dilated venules contained only a few cytotrophoblast cells. In later stages endovascular cytotrophoblast not only plugged many spiral arterioles but also migrated into the walls of these arterioles, and progressed into deeper coils. Displacement of endothelial cells and disruption of vessel walls were illustrated with antibody to factor VIII, TGFoc, and desmin. Clusters of cytotrophoblast cells at the fetal-maternal interface tended to bypass clusters of epithelial plaque cells and larger clusters of maternal fibroblasts, but readily entered all vascular spaces. Consequently the vascular system constituted a major pathway of invasion, although the arterioles were the only component substantially invaded beyond the trophoblastic-shell/endometrial border.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.