In a Caucasian male, the maxillary artery (M) bilaterally arose with the facial artery anteromedially from the external carotid artery. On the right side, the M entered the infratemporal fossa between the neck of the mandible and the medial pterygoid muscle, wereas the left M pierced the medial pterygoid muscle, first being covered by the muscle and the angle of the mandible. On both sides, the M ran deep to the inferior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle and the buccal nerve. The right M lay deep to the inferior alveolar, but superficial to the lingual nerve, whereas the left inferior alveolar and lingual nerves had formed two roots, thus encircling the left M. The ascending palatine artery was replaced on both sides by palatine branches of theascending pharyngeal artery. Since a bilaterial maxillofacial trunk with topographical relations as described herein has not been previously reported in man, the embryology and comparative anatomy of this variation are discussed.

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