The posterior gastric artery, a branch of the splenic artery to the posterior gastric wall, was described for the first time by Walther in 1729. It was often” recognized by many authors since, but consequently ignored by anatomical and surgical textbooks until its rediscovery and description by Suzuki et al. [Ann. Surg. 187:134–136, 1978]. The incidence of the posterior gastric artery differs between 4 and nearly 100%. All authors describe posterior gastric regions being supplied by the posterior gastric artery, but sometimes also a branch running towards the superior pole of the spleen is cited. In our study of 104 corpses we found the posterior gastric artery with an incidence of 37.5%. In one third of these cases, a branch of the posterior gastric artery to the superior pole of the spleen was also detectable. Besides these results, the course of the posterior gastric artery to the corresponding organs and the importance of this vessel for the abdominal surgeon are discussed.

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