The scapula responds to the compressive states of its surrounding matrix produced by muscle functioning and weight bearing in the upper extremity with discernible structural correlates. These structural correlates can be utilized to infer locomotor behavior. After dissection and drying, the weights of several muscles of the shoulder region of 11 adult female baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were statistically compared to various dimensions of the bony scapula. A significant correlation was obtained between the weights of the individual compressive muscles, the combined weights of the compressive muscles and a scapular dimension of width. A nonsignificant correlation between these muscles and a scapular dimension of length was also found. The results of this study were compared to those of a previous study of the scapular musculature in Macaca and opposing conclusions were obtained. The advisability of lumping macaques and baboons into a single gross locomotor category is rejected.